Vaccinations For Dogs


Canine Distemper  

Distemper is a serious viral disease affecting primarily young, unvaccinated dogs. Clinical signs may include a yellowish or greenish discharge from the eyes or nose, coughing, difficulty breathing, increased body temperature, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nervous system disorder (twitching of a limb, seizures, etc.), and hardening of the foot pads. Distemper is a highly contagious disease. All body excretions and secretions (discharge from the eyes or nose, vomitus, diarrhea, urine) may carry the infection. The virus can also be carried by air currents and on inanimate objects such as food bowls. Prevention of this disease is extremely important, as distemper is often fatal. Even if a dog survives the disease, distemper can permanently damage the dog's nervous system, sense of smell, sight and sound. Vaccination has been shown to prevent the disease.


Canine Parvovirus 

Parvovirus is a serious disease affecting primarily young dogs (6 weeks to 6 months of age) although any age can be affected. The breeds at highest risk include Rottweiller, Doberman Pinscher, German Shepherd and Pit bull. Parvovirus is a hardy virus, able to withstand extreme temperature changes and exposure to most disinfectants. Dogs contact parvovirus through exposure to infected dogs or infected stools. Parvovirus attacks the gastrointestinal tract, causing affected dogs to lose their appetite, become lethargic and show evidence of vomiting, diarrhea or both. The diarrhea is often bloody and has a foul odour (that of digested blood). Some dogs develop fevers. Left untreated parvovirus can be fatal. The disease is very serious and can be expensive to treat. Vaccination against this highly contagious viral disease has proven to be very successful in preventing this disease (or lessening its severity)


Canine Kennel Cough  

Clinical signs of kennel cough include dry, hacking cough and, is some dogs, nasal discharge, loss of appetite and difficulty breathing. Kennel cough is highly contagious and is spread through sneezing, coughing and contact with infected nasal secretions. Kennel cough is most commonly transmitted when dogs are put in close proximity to one another, for example, dog shows, boarding kennels, groomers, etc. In most cases, kennel cough lasts 7 - 10 days and dogs recover fully from it. In some cases antibiotics are necessary. If your dog is on the show circuit or spends time in a boarding facility, vaccination may be recommended. Speak to your veterinarian about your dog's risk of exposure and need for this vaccine.


Infectious Canine Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a viral disease that is most common in young, unvaccinated dogs (9 - 12 weeks). Clinical signs may include respiratory tract abnormalities (discharge from the nose or eyes, coughing) or evidence of liver and/or kidney disease (jaundice, loss of appetite, vomiting, change in drinking and urinating behaviour). Occasionally, an affected dog develops a "blue eye" (corneal edema). Hepatitis is spread by contact with urine from an infected dog. Prevention by vaccination is the key as canine hepatitis is often fatal. Infectious canine hepatitis is not contagious to people.



Rabies is a viral disease that attacks the central nervous system of all warm blooded animals, including humans. Rabies is transmitted by saliva, which is usually transferred by a bite from an infected animal. The disease is frequently found in wild animals such as skunks, foxes, raccoons and bats. Once infected, the disease is fatal. Prior to death, clinical signs may include a change in behaviour (eg. Increased aggressiveness or increased shyness), dilation of the pupils, excess salivation, snapping at the air, a shifting gait and fatal twitching. As the virus can be transmitted to humans, no stray dog, cat or wild animal should ever be approached. Wild animals should never be kept as pets. Your pet should be kept on its own property or leashed when off its property. To help prevent raccoon rabies, it is recommended that you cap chimneys, close up any holes in attics or outbuildings and make sure that stored garbage does not act as a food source. Vaccination is important to safeguard your dog from rabies. Some veterinarians recommended vaccinating every year, while others recommend a three-year vaccine. Talk to your veterinarian about the degree of risk for Rabies in your area and about which vaccine will provide your pet with the protection it requires.


Canine Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a disease that impairs kidney function and may cause kidney failure. Liver disease is also common. Clinical signs may include loss of appetite, lethargy, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea and seizures.   There are a number of different types of leptospira that may cause the disease. Wild and domestic animals (cattle, pigs, raccoons, skunks, foxes, dogs) may act as reservoirs for infection. The disease is transmitted by contact with the urine of infected animals. Stagnant or slow-moving water may provide a suitable habitat for the organism to thrive. Leptospirosis is not common in most areas of Ontario, however all dogs are potentially at risk, although some may be at lower risk than others. 


Canine Corona Virus 

Canine corona virus infects one of the layers of the intestinal tract and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea. Infected dogs can shed the virus to other dogs. The overall prevalence of corona virus is thought to be low and most infections are self-limiting. Vaccination against this virus is available, but not all veterinarians recommend it. Speak to your veterinarian about your dog's risk for developing this viral disease.


Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete (Borrelia burgdoferi) and spread by ticks. It is a serious disease in people. Clinical signs in dogs, if they occur, include lameness, joint swelling, fever, loss of appetite and lethargy. The heart, brain and kidney may also be affected. Dogs do not generally show the classic red lesion that a human exhibits at the site of a tick bite. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is not black and white. If the disease is suspected, your veterinarian may request a blood test to detect antibodies to Borrelia. If this test is positive and your dog has clinical signs suggestive of Lyme disease and a history of travel to a high risk area, antibiotics may be recommended. Vaccination against Lyme Disease can be prudent if your dog visits areas where ticks occur. To assist in the prevention of Lyme disease, use flea and tick sprays and remove any ticks from the animal promptly, if found. This risk of tick exposure can be reduced by keeping your dog on a leash, on trails and out of woodlands and fields. Brushing the pet's coat as soon as the walk is complete is important.